Ikaros/IKZF1 is an essential transcription factor expressed throughout hematopoiesis. IKZF1 is implicated in lymphocyte and myeloid differentiation and negative regulation of cell proliferation. In humans, somatic mutations in IKZF1 have been linked to the development of B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in children and adults. Recently, heterozygous germline IKZF1 mutations have been identified in patients with a B cell immune deficiency mimicking common variable immunodeficiency. These mutations demonstrated incomplete penetrance and led to haploinsufficiency. Herein, we report 7 unrelated patients with a novel early-onset combined immunodeficiency associated with de novo germline IKZF1 heterozygous mutations affecting amino acid N159 located in the DNA-binding domain of IKZF1. Different bacterial and viral infections were diagnosed, but Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia was reported in all patients. One patient developed a T cell ALL. This immunodeficiency was characterized by innate and adaptive immune defects, including low numbers of B cells, neutrophils, eosinophils, and myeloid dendritic cells, as well as T cell and monocyte dysfunctions. Notably, most T cells exhibited a naive phenotype and were unable to evolve into effector memory cells. Functional studies indicated these mutations act as dominant negative. This defect expands the clinical spectrum of human IKZF1-associated diseases from somatic to germline, from haploinsufficient to dominant negative.
David Boutboul, Hye Sun Kuehn, Zoé Van de Wyngaert, Julie E. Niemela, Isabelle Callebaut, Jennifer Stoddard, Christelle Lenoir, Vincent Barlogis, Catherine Farnarier, Frédéric Vely, Nao Yoshida, Seiji Kojima, Hirokazu Kanegane, Akihiro Hoshino, Fabian Hauck, Ludovic Lhermitte, Vahid Asnafi, Philip Roehrs, Shaoying Chen, James W. Verbsky, Katherine R. Calvo, Ammar Husami, Kejian Zhang, Joseph Roberts, David Amrol, John Sleaseman, Amy P. Hsu, Steven M. Holland, Rebecca Marsh, Alain Fischer, Thomas A. Fleisher, Capucine Picard, Sylvain Latour, Sergio D. Rosenzweig
Radiographic contrast agents cause acute kidney injury (AKI), yet the underlying pathogenesis is poorly understood. Nod-like receptor pyrin containing 3–deficient (Nlrp3-deficient) mice displayed reduced epithelial cell injury and inflammation in the kidney in a model of contrast-induced AKI (CI-AKI). Unexpectedly, contrast agents directly induced tubular epithelial cell death in vitro that was not dependent on Nlrp3. Rather, contrast agents activated the canonical Nlrp3 inflammasome in macrophages. Intravital microscopy revealed diatrizoate (DTA) uptake within minutes in perivascular CX3CR1+ resident phagocytes in the kidney. Following rapid filtration into the tubular luminal space, DTA was reabsorbed and concentrated in tubular epithelial cells via the brush border enzyme dipeptidase-1 in volume-depleted but not euvolemic mice. LysM-GFP+ macrophages recruited to the kidney interstitial space ingested contrast material transported from the urine via direct interactions with tubules. CI-AKI was dependent on resident renal phagocytes, IL-1, leukocyte recruitment, and dipeptidase-1. Levels of the inflammasome-related urinary biomarkers IL-18 and caspase-1 were increased immediately following contrast administration in patients undergoing coronary angiography, consistent with the acute renal effects observed in mice. Taken together, these data show that CI-AKI is a multistep process that involves immune surveillance by resident and infiltrating renal phagocytes, Nlrp3-dependent inflammation, and the tubular reabsorption of contrast via dipeptidase-1.
Arthur Lau, Hyunjae Chung, Takanori Komada, Jaye M. Platnich, Christina F. Sandall, Saurav Roy Choudhury, Justin Chun, Victor Naumenko, Bas G.J. Surewaard, Michelle C. Nelson, Annegret Ulke-Lemée, Paul L. Beck, Hallgrimur Benediktsson, Anthony M. Jevnikar, Sarah L. Snelgrove, Michael J. Hickey, Donna L. Senger, Matthew T. James, Justin A. Macdonald, Paul Kubes, Craig N. Jenne, Daniel A. Muruve
The superoxide-generating enzyme Nox2 contributes to hypertension and cardiovascular remodeling triggered by activation of the renin-angiotensin system. Multiple Nox2-expressing cells are implicated in angiotensin II–induced (Ang II–induced) pathophysiology, but the importance of Nox2 in leukocyte subsets is poorly understood. Here, we investigated the role of Nox2 in T cells, particularly Tregs. Mice globally deficient in Nox2 displayed increased numbers of Tregs in the heart at baseline, whereas Ang II–induced effector T cell (Teff) infiltration was inhibited. To investigate the role of Treg Nox2, we generated a mouse line with CD4-targeted Nox2 deficiency (Nox2fl/flCD4Cre+). These animals showed inhibition of Ang II–induced hypertension and cardiac remodeling related to increased tissue-resident Tregs and reduction in infiltrating Teffs, including Th17 cells. The protection in Nox2fl/flCD4Cre+ mice was reversed by anti-CD25 antibody depletion of Tregs. Mechanistically, Nox2–/y Tregs showed higher in vitro suppression of Teff proliferation than WT Tregs, increased nuclear levels of FoxP3 and NF-κB, and enhanced transcription of CD25, CD39, and CD73. Adoptive transfer of Tregs confirmed that Nox2-deficient cells had greater inhibitory effects on Ang II–induced heart remodeling than WT cells. These results identify a previously unrecognized role of Nox2 in modulating suppression of Tregs, which acts to enhance hypertension and cardiac remodeling.
Amber Emmerson, Silvia Cellone Trevelin, Heloise Mongue-Din, Pablo D. Becker, Carla Ortiz, Lesley A. Smyth, Qi Peng, Raul Elgueta, Greta Sawyer, Aleksandar Ivetic, Robert I. Lechler, Giovanna Lombardi, Ajay M. Shah
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), a degenerative motor neuron (MN) disease, caused by loss of functional survival of motor neuron (SMN) protein due to SMN1 gene mutations, is a leading cause of infant mortality. Increasing SMN levels ameliorates the disease phenotype and is unanimously accepted as a therapeutic approach for patients with SMA. The ubiquitin/proteasome system is known to regulate SMN protein levels; however, whether autophagy controls SMN levels remains poorly explored. Here, we show that SMN protein is degraded by autophagy. Pharmacological and genetic inhibition of autophagy increases SMN levels, while induction of autophagy decreases these levels. SMN degradation occurs via its interaction with the autophagy adapter p62 (also known as SQSTM1). We also show that SMA neurons display reduced autophagosome clearance, increased p62 and ubiquitinated proteins levels, and hyperactivated mTORC1 signaling. Importantly, reducing p62 levels markedly increases SMN and its binding partner gemin2, promotes MN survival, and extends lifespan in fly and mouse SMA models, revealing p62 as a potential new therapeutic target for the treatment of SMA.
Natalia Rodriguez-Muela, Andrey Parkhitko, Tobias Grass, Rebecca M. Gibbs, Erika M. Norabuena, Norbert Perrimon, Rajat Singh, Lee L. Rubin
Medial vascular calcification, associated with enhanced mortality in chronic kidney disease (CKD), is fostered by osteo-/chondrogenic transdifferentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Here, we describe that serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase 1 (SGK1) was upregulated in VSMCs under calcifying conditions. In primary human aortic VSMCs, overexpression of constitutively active SGK1S422D, but not inactive SGK1K127N, upregulated osteo-/chondrogenic marker expression and activity, effects pointing to increased osteo-/chondrogenic transdifferentiation. SGK1S422D induced nuclear translocation and increased transcriptional activity of NF-κB. Silencing or pharmacological inhibition of IKK abrogated the osteoinductive effects of SGK1S422D. Genetic deficiency, silencing, and pharmacological inhibition of SGK1 dissipated phosphate-induced calcification and osteo-/chondrogenic transdifferentiation of VSMCs. Aortic calcification, stiffness, and osteo-/chondrogenic transdifferentiation in mice following cholecalciferol overload were strongly reduced by genetic knockout or pharmacological inhibition of Sgk1 by EMD638683. Similarly, Sgk1 deficiency blunted vascular calcification in apolipoprotein E–deficient mice after subtotal nephrectomy. Treatment of human aortic smooth muscle cells with serum from uremic patients induced osteo-/chondrogenic transdifferentiation, effects ameliorated by EMD638683. These observations identified SGK1 as a key regulator of vascular calcification. SGK1 promoted vascular calcification, at least partly, via NF-κB activation. Inhibition of SGK1 may, thus, reduce the burden of vascular calcification in CKD.
Jakob Voelkl, Trang T.D. Luong, Rashad Tuffaha, Katharina Musculus, Tilman Auer, Xiaoming Lian, Christoph Daniel, Daniel Zickler, Beate Boehme, Michael Sacherer, Bernhard Metzler, Dietmar Kuhl, Maik Gollasch, Kerstin Amann, Dominik N. Müller, Burkert Pieske, Florian Lang, Ioana Alesutan
Very few B cells in germinal centers (GCs) and extrafollicular (EF) regions of lymph nodes express CD30. Their specific features and relationship to CD30-expressing Hodgkin and Reed/Sternberg (HRS) cells of Hodgkin lymphoma are unclear but highly relevant, because numerous patients with lymphoma are currently treated with an anti-CD30 immunotoxin. We performed a comprehensive analysis of human CD30+ B cells. Phenotypic and IgV gene analyses indicated that CD30+ GC B lymphocytes represent typical GC B cells, and that CD30+ EF B cells are mostly post-GC B cells. The transcriptomes of CD30+ GC and EF B cells largely overlapped, sharing a strong MYC signature, but were strikingly different from conventional GC B cells and memory B and plasma cells, respectively. CD30+ GC B cells represent MYC+ centrocytes redifferentiating into centroblasts; CD30+ EF B cells represent active, proliferating memory B cells. HRS cells shared typical transcriptome patterns with CD30+ B cells, suggesting that they originate from these lymphocytes or acquire their characteristic features during lymphomagenesis. By comparing HRS to normal CD30+ B cells we redefined aberrant and disease-specific features of HRS cells. A remarkable downregulation of genes regulating genomic stability and cytokinesis in HRS cells may explain their genomic instability and multinuclearity.
Marc A. Weniger, Enrico Tiacci, Stefanie Schneider, Judith Arnolds, Sabrina Rüschenbaum, Janine Duppach, Marc Seifert, Claudia Döring, Martin-Leo Hansmann, Ralf Küppers
The transcription factor GATA6 has been shown to be important for lung development and branching morphogenesis in mouse models, but its role in human lung development is largely unknown. Here, we studied the role of GATA6 during lung differentiation using human pluripotent stem cells. We found that the human stem cell lines most efficient at generating NKX2.1+ lung progenitors express lower endogenous levels of GATA6 during endoderm patterning and that knockdown of GATA6 during endoderm patterning increased the generation of these cells. Complete ablation of GATA6 resulted in the generation of lung progenitors displaying increased cell proliferation with up to a 15-fold expansion compared with control cells, whereas the null cell line displayed a defect in further development into mature lung cell types. Furthermore, transgenic expression of GATA6 at the endoderm anteriorization stage skewed development toward a liver fate at the expense of lung progenitors. Our results suggest a critical dosage effect of GATA6 during human endoderm patterning and a later requirement during terminal lung differentiation. These studies offer an approach of modulating GATA6 expression to enhance the production of lung progenitors from human stem cell sources.
Chia-Min Liao, Somdutta Mukherjee, Amita Tiyaboonchai, Jean Ann Maguire, Fabian L. Cardenas-Diaz, Deborah L. French, Paul Gadue
BACKGROUND. Monogenic IFN–mediated autoinflammatory diseases present in infancy with systemic inflammation, an IFN response gene signature, inflammatory organ damage, and high mortality. We used the JAK inhibitor baricitinib, with IFN-blocking activity in vitro, to ameliorate disease. METHODS. Between October 2011 and February 2017, 10 patients with CANDLE (chronic atypical neutrophilic dermatosis with lipodystrophy and elevated temperatures), 4 patients with SAVI (stimulator of IFN genes–associated [STING-associated] vasculopathy with onset in infancy), and 4 patients with other interferonopathies were enrolled in an expanded access program. The patients underwent dose escalation, and the benefit was assessed by reductions in daily disease symptoms and corticosteroid requirement. Quality of life, organ inflammation, changes in IFN-induced biomarkers, and safety were longitudinally assessed. RESULTS. Eighteen patients were treated for a mean duration of 3.0 years (1.5–4.9 years). The median daily symptom score decreased from 1.3 (interquartile range [IQR], 0.93–1.78) to 0.25 (IQR, 0.1–0.63) (P < 0.0001). In 14 patients receiving corticosteroids at baseline, daily prednisone doses decreased from 0.44 mg/kg/day (IQR, 0.31–1.09) to 0.11 mg/kg/day (IQR, 0.02–0.24) (P < 0.01), and 5 of 10 patients with CANDLE achieved lasting clinical remission. The patients’ quality of life and height and bone mineral density Z-scores significantly improved, and their IFN biomarkers decreased. Three patients, two of whom had genetically undefined conditions, discontinued treatment because of lack of efficacy, and one CANDLE patient discontinued treatment because of BK viremia and azotemia. The most common adverse events were upper respiratory infections, gastroenteritis, and BK viruria and viremia. CONCLUSION. Upon baricitinib treatment, clinical manifestations and inflammatory and IFN biomarkers improved in patients with the monogenic interferonopathies CANDLE, SAVI, and other interferonopathies. Monitoring safety and efficacy is important in benefit-risk assessment. TRIAL REGISTRATION. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01724580 and NCT02974595. FUNDING. This research was supported by the Intramural Research Program of the NIH, NIAID, and NIAMS. Baricitinib was provided by Eli Lilly and Company, which is the sponsor of the expanded access program for this drug.
Gina A. Montealegre Sanchez, Adam Reinhardt, Suzanne Ramsey, Helmut Wittkowski, Philip J. Hashkes, Yackov Berkun, Susanne Schalm, Sara Murias, Jason A. Dare, Diane Brown, Deborah L. Stone, Ling Gao, Thomas Klausmeier, Dirk Foell, Adriana A. de Jesus, Dawn C. Chapelle, Hanna Kim, Samantha Dill, Robert A. Colbert, Laura Failla, Bahar Kost, Michelle O’Brien, James C. Reynolds, Les R. Folio, Katherine R. Calvo, Scott M. Paul, Nargues Weir, Alessandra Brofferio, Ariane Soldatos, Angelique Biancotto, Edward W. Cowen, John J. Digiovanna, Massimo Gadina, Andrew J. Lipton, Colleen Hadigan, Steven M. Holland, Joseph Fontana, Ahmad S. Alawad, Rebecca J. Brown, Kristina I. Rother, Theo Heller, Kristina M. Brooks, Parag Kumar, Stephen R. Brooks, Meryl Waldman, Harsharan K. Singh, Volker Nickeleit, Maria Silk, Apurva Prakash, Jonathan M. Janes, Seza Ozen, Paul G. Wakim, Paul A. Brogan, William L. Macias, Raphaela Goldbach-Mansky
Interferonopathies are a subset of autoinflammatory disorders with a prominent type I IFN gene signature. Treatment of these patients has been challenging, given the lack of response to common autoinflammatory therapeutics including IL-1 and TNF blockade. JAK inhibitors (Jakinibs) are a family of small-molecule inhibitors that target the JAK/STAT signaling pathway and have shown clinical efficacy, with FDA and European Medicines Agency (EMA) approval for arthritic and myeloproliferative syndromes. Sanchez and colleagues repurposed baricitinib to establish a significant role for JAK inhibition as a novel therapy for patients with interferonopathies, demonstrating the power of translational rare disease research with lifesaving effects.
Hal M. Hoffman, Lori Broderick
Toll-like receptors TLR7 and TLR9 are both implicated in the activation of autoreactive B cells and other cell types associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) pathogenesis. However, Tlr9–/– autoimmune-prone strains paradoxically develop more severe disease. We have now leveraged the negative regulatory role of TLR9 to develop an inducible rapid-onset murine model of systemic autoimmunity that depends on T cell detection of a membrane-bound OVA fusion protein expressed by MHC class II+ cells, expression of TLR7, expression of the type I IFN receptor, and loss of expression of TLR9. These mice are distinguished by a high frequency of OVA-specific Tbet+, IFN-γ+, and FasL-expressing Th1 cells as well as autoantibody-producing B cells. Unexpectedly, contrary to what occurs in most models of SLE, they also developed skin lesions that are very similar to those of human cutaneous lupus erythematosus (CLE) as far as clinical appearance, histological changes, and gene expression. FasL was a key effector mechanism in the skin, as the transfer of FasL-deficient DO11gld T cells completely failed to elicit overt skin lesions. FasL was also upregulated in human CLE biopsies. Overall, our model provides a relevant system for exploring the pathophysiology of CLE as well as the negative regulatory role of TLR9.
Purvi Mande, Bahar Zirak, Wei-Che Ko, Keyon Taravati, Karen L. Bride, Tia Y. Brodeur, April Deng, Karen Dresser, Zhaozhao Jiang, Rachel Ettinger, Katherine A. Fitzgerald, Michael D. Rosenblum, John E. Harris, Ann Marshak-Rothstein
Progression of chronic kidney disease associated with progressive fibrosis and impaired tubular epithelial regeneration is still an unmet biomedical challenge because, once chronic lesions have manifested, no effective therapies are available as of yet for clinical use. Prompted by various studies across multiple organs demonstrating that preconditioning regimens to induce endogenous regenerative mechanisms protect various organs from later incurring acute injuries, we here aimed to gain insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying successful protection and to explore whether such pathways could be utilized to inhibit progression of chronic organ injury. We identified a protective mechanism controlled by the transcription factor ARNT that effectively inhibits progression of chronic kidney injury by transcriptional induction of ALK3, the principal mediator of antifibrotic and proregenerative bone morphogenetic protein–signaling (BMP-signaling) responses. We further report that ARNT expression itself is controlled by the FKBP12/YY1 transcriptional repressor complex and that disruption of such FKBP12/YY1 complexes by picomolar FK506 at subimmunosuppressive doses increases ARNT expression, subsequently leading to homodimeric ARNT-induced ALK3 transcription. Direct targeting of FKBP12/YY1 with in vivo morpholino approaches or small molecule inhibitors, including GPI-1046, was equally effective for inducing ARNT expression, with subsequent activation of ALK3-dependent canonical BMP-signaling responses and attenuated chronic organ failure in models of chronic kidney disease, and also cardiac and liver injuries. In summary, we report an organ-protective mechanism that can be pharmacologically modulated by immunophilin ligands FK506 and GPI-1046 or therapeutically targeted by in vivo morpholino approaches.
Björn Tampe, Désirée Tampe, Gunsmaa Nyamsuren, Friederike Klöpper, Gregor Rapp, Anne Kauffels, Thomas Lorf, Elisabeth M. Zeisberg, Gerhard A. Müller, Raghu Kalluri, Samy Hakroush, Michael Zeisberg
Complications of diabetes affect tissues throughout the body, including the central nervous system. Epidemiological studies show that diabetic patients have an increased risk of depression, anxiety, age-related cognitive decline, and Alzheimer’s disease. Mice lacking insulin receptor (IR) in the brain or on hypothalamic neurons display an array of metabolic abnormalities; however, the role of insulin action on astrocytes and neurobehaviors remains less well studied. Here, we demonstrate that astrocytes are a direct insulin target in the brain and that knockout of IR on astrocytes causes increased anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors in mice. This can be reproduced in part by deletion of IR on astrocytes in the nucleus accumbens. At a molecular level, loss of insulin signaling in astrocytes impaired tyrosine phosphorylation of Munc18c. This led to decreased exocytosis of ATP from astrocytes, resulting in decreased purinergic signaling on dopaminergic neurons. These reductions contributed to decreased dopamine release from brain slices. Central administration of ATP analogs could reverse depressive-like behaviors in mice with astrocyte IR knockout. Thus, astrocytic insulin signaling plays an important role in dopaminergic signaling, providing a potential mechanism by which astrocytic insulin action may contribute to increased rates of depression in people with diabetes, obesity, and other insulin-resistant states.
Weikang Cai, Chang Xue, Masaji Sakaguchi, Masahiro Konishi, Alireza Shirazian, Heather A. Ferris, Mengyao E. Li, Ruichao Yu, Andre Kleinridders, Emmanuel N. Pothos, C. Ronald Kahn
Stromal cells within the tumor microenvironment play a supportive role in tumor growth, progression, and treatment resistance; therefore, these nonmalignant cells are potential therapeutic targets. In this issue of the JCI, Szot et al. devised a strategy to exploit the cell-surface marker TEM8 (also known as ANTXR1), which is expressed by cancer-associated stromal cells, as a zip code to deliver an antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) linked to the potent cancer-killing drug monomethyl auristatin E (MMAE). In preclinical tumor and experimental metastasis models of multiple cancer types, TEM8-ADC targeted TEM8-expressing cancer-associated stromal cells, which processed and liberated membrane-permeable MMAE and released this drug via the P-glycoprotein (P-gp) drug transporter. Released MMAE killed cancer cells through a bystander mechanism that did minimal damage to the stromal cells themselves. P-gp–expressing tumor cells displayed MMAE resistance, suggesting that P-gp expression status may identify patients who might benefit the most from TEM8-ADC. This strategy, termed DAaRTS (drug activation and release through stroma), represents an elegant example of how selective expression of a cell-surface molecule on cancer-associated stroma can be exploited to facilitate drug delivery and shrink solid tumors.
James V. McCann, Jamie L. Null, Andrew C. Dudley
A synthetic lethality–based strategy has been developed to identify therapeutic targets in cancer harboring tumor-suppressor gene mutations, as exemplified by the effectiveness of poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) inhibitors in BRCA1/2-mutated tumors. However, many synthetic lethal interactors are less reliable due to the fact that such genes usually do not perform fundamental or indispensable functions in the cell. Here, we developed an approach to identifying the “essential lethality” arising from these mutated/deleted essential genes, which are largely tolerated in cancer cells due to genetic redundancy. We uncovered the cohesion subunit SA1 as a putative synthetic-essential target in cancers carrying inactivating mutations of its paralog, SA2. In SA2-deficient Ewing sarcoma and bladder cancer, further depletion of SA1 profoundly and specifically suppressed cancer cell proliferation, survival, and tumorigenic potential. Mechanistically, inhibition of SA1 in the SA2-mutated cells led to premature chromatid separation, dramatic extension of mitotic duration, and consequently, lethal failure of cell division. More importantly, depletion of SA1 rendered those SA2-mutated cells more susceptible to DNA damage, especially double-strand breaks (DSBs), due to reduced functionality of DNA repair. Furthermore, inhibition of SA1 sensitized the SA2-deficient cancer cells to PARP inhibitors in vitro and in vivo, providing a potential therapeutic strategy for patients with SA2-deficient tumors.
Yunhua Liu, Hanchen Xu, Kevin Van der Jeught, Yujing Li, Sheng Liu, Lu Zhang, Yuanzhang Fang, Xinna Zhang, Milan Radovich, Bryan P. Schneider, Xiaoming He, Cheng Huang, Chi Zhang, Jun Wan, Guang Ji, Xiongbin Lu
Although nonmalignant stromal cells facilitate tumor growth and can occupy up to 90% of a solid tumor mass, better strategies to exploit these cells for improved cancer therapy are needed. Here, we describe a potent MMAE-linked antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) targeting tumor endothelial marker 8 (TEM8, also known as ANTXR1), a highly conserved transmembrane receptor broadly overexpressed on cancer-associated fibroblasts, endothelium, and pericytes. Anti-TEM8 ADC elicited potent anticancer activity through an unexpected killing mechanism we term DAaRTS (drug activation and release through stroma), whereby the tumor microenvironment localizes active drug at the tumor site. Following capture of ADC prodrug from the circulation, tumor-associated stromal cells release active MMAE free drug, killing nearby proliferating tumor cells in a target-independent manner. In preclinical studies, ADC treatment was well tolerated and induced regression and often eradication of multiple solid tumor types, blocked metastatic growth, and prolonged overall survival. By exploiting TEM8+ tumor stroma for targeted drug activation, these studies reveal a drug delivery strategy with potential to augment therapies against multiple cancer types.
Christopher Szot, Saurabh Saha, Xiaoyan M. Zhang, Zhongyu Zhu, Mary Beth Hilton, Karen Morris, Steven Seaman, James M. Dunleavey, Kuo-Sheng Hsu, Guo-Jun Yu, Holly Morris, Deborah A. Swing, Diana C. Haines, Yanping Wang, Jennifer Hwang, Yang Feng, Dean Welsch, Gary DeCrescenzo, Amit Chaudhary, Enrique Zudaire, Dimiter S. Dimitrov, Brad St. Croix
The human brain is an important site of HIV replication and persistence during antiretroviral therapy (ART). Direct evaluation of HIV infection in the brains of otherwise healthy individuals is not feasible; therefore, we performed a large-scale study of bone marrow/liver/thymus (BLT) humanized mice as an in vivo model to study HIV infection in the brain. Human immune cells, including CD4+ T cells and macrophages, were present throughout the BLT mouse brain. HIV DNA, HIV RNA, and/or p24+ cells were observed in the brains of HIV-infected animals, regardless of the HIV isolate used. HIV infection resulted in decreased numbers of CD4+ T cells, increased numbers of CD8+ T cells, and a decreased CD4+/CD8+ T cell ratio in the brain. Using humanized T cell–only mice (ToM), we demonstrated that T cells establish and maintain HIV infection of the brain in the complete absence of human myeloid cells. HIV infection of ToM resulted in CD4+ T cell depletion and a reduced CD4+/CD8+ T cell ratio. ART significantly reduced HIV levels in the BLT mouse brain, and the immune cell populations present were indistinguishable from those of uninfected controls, which demonstrated the effectiveness of ART in controlling HIV replication in the CNS and returning cellular homeostasis to a pre-HIV state.
Jenna B. Honeycutt, Baolin Liao, Christopher C. Nixon, Rachel A. Cleary, William O. Thayer, Shayla L. Birath, Michael D. Swanson, Patricia Sheridan, Oksana Zakharova, Francesca Prince, JoAnn Kuruc, Cynthia L. Gay, Chris Evans, Joseph J. Eron, Angela Wahl, J. Victor Garcia
Drug resistance remains the key problem in cancer treatment. It is now accepted that each myeloma patient harbors multiple subclones and subclone dominance may change over time. The coexistence of multiple subclones with high or low chromosomal instability (CIN) signature causes heterogeneity and drug resistance with consequent disease relapse. In this study, using a tandem affinity purification–mass spectrometry (TAP-MS) technique, we found that NEK2, a CIN gene, was bound to the deubiquitinase USP7. Binding to USP7 prevented NEK2 ubiquitination resulting in NEK2 stabilization. Increased NEK2 kinase levels activated the canonical NF-κB signaling pathway through the PP1α/AKT axis. Newly diagnosed myeloma patients with activated NF-κB signaling through increased NEK2 activity had poorer event-free and overall survivals based on multiple independent clinical cohorts. We also found that NEK2 activated heparanase, a secreted enzyme, responsible for bone destruction in an NF-κB–dependent manner. Intriguingly, both NEK2 and USP7 inhibitors showed great efficacy in inhibiting myeloma cell growth and overcoming NEK2-induced and -acquired drug resistance in xenograft myeloma mouse models.
Reinaldo Franqui-Machin, Mu Hao, Hua Bai, Zhimin Gu, Xin Zhan, Hasem Habelhah, Yogesh Jethava, Lugui Qiu, Ivana Frech, Guido Tricot, Fenghuang Zhan
Epigenetic modifications control cancer development and clonal evolution in various cancer types. Here, we show that loss of the male-specific histone demethylase lysine-specific demethylase 5D (KDM5D) encoded on the Y chromosome epigenetically modifies histone methylation marks and alters gene expression, resulting in aggressive prostate cancer. Fluorescent in situ hybridization demonstrated that segmental or total deletion of the Y chromosome in prostate cancer cells is one of the causes of decreased KDM5D mRNA expression. The result of ChIP-sequencing analysis revealed that KDM5D preferably binds to promoter regions with coenrichment of the motifs of crucial transcription factors that regulate the cell cycle. Loss of KDM5D expression with dysregulated H3K4me3 transcriptional marks was associated with acceleration of the cell cycle and mitotic entry, leading to increased DNA-replication stress. Analysis of multiple clinical data sets reproducibly showed that loss of expression of KDM5D confers a poorer prognosis. Notably, we also found stress-induced DNA damage on the serine/threonine protein kinase ATR with loss of KDM5D. In KDM5D-deficient cells, blocking ATR activity with an ATR inhibitor enhanced DNA damage, which led to subsequent apoptosis. These data start to elucidate the biological characteristics resulting from loss of KDM5D and also provide clues for a potential novel therapeutic approach for this subset of aggressive prostate cancer.
Kazumasa Komura, Yuki Yoshikawa, Teppei Shimamura, Goutam Chakraborty, Travis A. Gerke, Kunihiko Hinohara, Kalyani Chadalavada, Seong Ho Jeong, Joshua Armenia, Shin-Yi Du, Ying Z. Mazzu, Kohei Taniguchi, Naokazu Ibuki, Clifford A. Meyer, Gouri J. Nanjangud, Teruo Inamoto, Gwo-Shu Mary Lee, Lorelei A. Mucci, Haruhito Azuma, Christopher J. Sweeney, Philip W. Kantoff
Acute kidney injury comprises a heterogeneous group of conditions characterized by a sudden decrease in renal function over hours to days. Contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) is caused by radiographic contrast agents used in diagnostic imaging. In the current issue of the JCI, Lau et al. use a mouse model of CI-AKI to study the role of resident and infiltrating phagocytes, recruited leukocytes, and tubular cells in the immune surveillance response to contrast agents. This study has the potential to provide innovative therapies for human CI-AKI.
Simon J. Atkinson
Myrthala Moreno-Smith, J.B. Halder, Paul S. Meltzer, Tamas A. Gonda, Lingegowda S. Mangala, Rajesha Rupaimoole, Chunhua Lu, Archana S. Nagaraja, Kshipra M. Gharpure, Yu Kang, Cristian Rodriguez-Aguayo, Pablo E. Vivas-Mejia, Behrouz Zand, Rosemarie Schmandt, Hua Wang, Robert R. Langley, Nicholas B. Jennings, Cristina Ivan, Jeremy E. Coffin, Guillermo N. Armaiz, Justin Bottsford-Miller, Sang Bae Kim, Margaret S. Halleck, Mary J.C. Hendrix, William Bornman, Menashe Bar-Eli, Ju-Seog Lee, Zahid H. Siddik, Gabriel Lopez-Berestein, Anil K. Sood